February 7, 2008 - The sugar refinery in Port Wentworth, Georgia suffered a dust explosion in a room where sugar was packaged. The explosion was severe enough to destroy multiple buildings up to eight stories high. Fourteen people were killed and 40 injured by the explosion.
October 29, 2003 - The Hayes Lemmerz International-Huntington, Inc. (Hayes) Facility in Huntington, Indiana had an aluminum dust explosion and fire. The explosion was caused by excess aluminum dust released within their scrap re-melting system. The explosion destroyed the dust collector, damaged equipment and lifted a portion of the building's roof.
January 29, 2003 - A large explosion ripped through the West Pharmaceutical Plant in Kinston, North Carolina. The explosion was caused by a synthetic rubber processing system which created a significant amount of dust. The building's ventilation allowed a thick layer of dust to collect on the ceiling which was later ignited by a machine which had suffered multiple fires.
Classes and Divisions
Equipment used in areas where there is concentrations of dusts exist must be equiped with special wiring and equipment to meet safety requirements. In order to use the correct equipment, the equipment has been divided into classes and divisions to match to the hazard identified in that area.
Class II, Division I
Where combustible dust is in the air under normal operating conditions in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures OR where mechanical failure or abnormal operation might cause explosive or ignitable mixtures and might provide a source of ignition through failure of electrical equipment
Class II, Division II
Where combustible dust due to abnormal operations may be present in the air in quantities sufficient to produce explosive or ignitable mixtures OR where combustible dust accumulations are present but are normally insufficient to interfere with normal operation of electrical equipment, but could as result of infrequent malfunctioning of equipment become suspended in air OR where combustible dust accumulations on, in, or in vicinity of electrical equipment could be sufficient to interfere with safe dissipation of heat from electrical equipment, or could be ignitable by abnormal operation or failure of electrical equipment
These areas have been broken down into specific groups that relates to the type of dust identified
|Area||Group||Combustible Dust Material|
|Class II, Division 1||E||Metal including magnesium, aluminum, titanium|
|Class II, Division 2||F||Carbon dusts including carbon, coal and charcoal|
|Class II, Division 2||G||Other non-conductive dusts including flour, wood & plastic|
The purpose of the DHA is to identity hazards in the process and document how those hazards are being managed. Lewellyn Technology's industry professionals are well-versed in regulatory and standards, including OSHA and NFPA.
Your dust is unique and must be tested accurately in order to identify your hazard. Our professionals design a sampling strategy, recommend and analyze the right number of tests required. Our goal is always help you keep costs low and we look for the minimal number of tests required. Upon delivery of test results, Lewellyn will schedule a conference call with your site leadership personnel to discuss the testing results.
Data produced through testing and the DHA is used to properly engineer and protect your dust handling and processing equipment. Our team will work with you to develop a customized Basis of Design for specific projects. We provide guidance in preparing engineering documents to assist your engineers in establishing proper specifications for your equipment and systems, relating to combustible dust.
All engineered systems require administrative protocols to keep them up to date. Administrative controls such as Management of Change, Employee Training and Predictive & Preventive Maintenance are required by consensus standards, state and local codes.We work with your team to develop and implement robust administrative controls and integrate combustible dust compliance and risk mitigation into other safety management and compliance programs.
When electrical equipment is in operation around combustible dust, there is a risk of a fire or explosion. Our Electrical Area Classification determines the electrical classification as it pertains to combustible dust including Class II Division 1 or Division 2 hazardous locations for specific areas throughout your facility. Our experts will visit your facility to compare current operations and conditions and determine the appropriate electrical classification for the specified locations within the facility based off Federal OSHA Electrical Standards, NFPA 70 and ANSI/NEMA standards.
A comprehensive Combustible Dust Program for your facility provides a roadmap for adhering to applicable OSHA and NFPA combustible dust standards. Applicable standards include, but are not limited to the following: 29 CFR 1910.22, 29 CFR 1910.38, 29 CFR 1910.94, 29 CFR 1910.132, 29 CFR 1910.252, 29 CFR 1910.307, 29 CFR 1910.1200, NFPA 652, NFPA 654, NFPA 484, NFPA 68, NFPA 69, NFPA 77, NFPA 91, NFPA 499, NFPA 51B, NFPA 70, NFPA 101.